Scottish port of Cromarty Firth
The Scottish HUGE Project Partners, the Environmental Research Institute, and the Highland Council have been engaged in discussions around hydrogen development in the Scottish port of Cromarty Firth.
Both organisations are members of the Opportunity Cromarty Firth partnership which is exploring the opportunity for the Cromarty Firth to become a free trade zone. The Highland Council is the local government authority for the area in the north of Scotland, and the Environmental Research Institute is part of the wider University of the Highlands and Islands, a tertiary institution based in the region.
The Cromarty Firth is a deepwater port situated in the north of Scotland. It has a long history of industrial development especially in the oil and gas industry over the last 50 years.
In recent times renewable activities, particularly in offshore wind, have been increasing and the port and various companies situated in the Firth hope to diversify into the renewable energy industry. Green hydrogen is increasingly becoming an aspiration for the port and supply chain.
The aims of the Opportunity Cromarty Firth project…
“is to maximise the local benefits from a pipeline of renewable energy projects which will create business opportunities and employment, attract inward investment, research, and development, and position the Highlands at the heart of the country’s commitment to becoming a net-zero economy.”
The Opportunity Cromarty Firth partnership finds itself in the ‘perfect storm’ for the development of renewable and hydrogen capacity. Located strategically close to a large proportion of the Scottish Governments leasing round for new offshore wind development and with existing oil and gas infrastructure and expertise the area is arguably Scotland’s best-located port for servicing offshore wind, and potentially hydrogen production associated with it.
Representatives from the Environmental Research Institute and the Highland Council have been contributing to the development plans for hydrogen via workshops organised by the Opportunity Cromarty Firth team to input knowledge and learning from the project.
Environmental Research Institute researcher Magnus Davidson who has been working on both the HUGE and Opportunity Cromarty Firth projects is encouraged by both projects saying…
“the new Scotwind leasing round for offshore wind from the Scottish Government opens up great opportunities for the region, and hydrogen is increasingly looking to be part of that. Hydrogen development in the Cromarty Firth is great for the local area but opens up business and decarbonisation opportunities across the whole region. There’s a huge amount of renewable potential and existing expertise from the oil and gas sector”
The Scottish Government establishes a new accelerator to drive hydrogen innovation in mobility
The Scottish Government is investing £300,000 in a new hydrogen accelerator which will be located at the University of St Andrews.
The new initiative will boost innovations in hydrogen technology and promote knowledge-sharing in the sphere of transport applications and sustainable mobility. The hydrogen accelerator objective will be to increase the economic opportunities from the shift to zero or ultra-low emission mobility solutions.
This will be achieved through close collaborations with other leading institutions, that have the expert capacity to advise on transport focussed hydrogen projects and to improve coordination between ongoing key initiatives. The analysis will be conducted to inform and to encourage new partnerships between industry and government.
This initiative strengthens the Scottish Government’s commitment to its net-zero target of 2045. Cabinet Secretary for Transport, Infrastructure, and Connectivity Michael Matheson said: ‘With abundant renewable energy resources and a strong engineering skills base, Scotland is in a strong position to develop a globally competitive hydrogen sector.‘
University of Saint Andrews
The HUGE project consortium is happy to contribute to the knowledge sharing initiative offering expertise and knowledge in hydrogen mobility opportunities available across the partnership.
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) – How do they work?
Hydrogen is considered the most abundant element on the planet. However, it does not exist on Earth as a gas by itself, but instead, usually makes up part of another component, such as water.
The gas is usually produced using the common method of steam reforming, using natural gas, or by sending an electrical current through the water in a process called electrolysis. Once separated from the other components, it can be used with oxygen in a fuel cell to create electricity, providing an alternative fuel source to power vehicles.
An FCV is like an EV in that they are both powered by an electric motor. However, electricity is stored in a battery in an EV, whereas the FCV produces electricity through a chemical process inside the fuel cell.
The hydrogen then acts as a replacement for petrol or diesel, refuelling in exactly the same time traditional fuel does. This contrasts with EVs, which take considerably longer to recharge.
What does the future hold for FCVs?
Despite the many false starts and the reservations that still surround FCVs, researchers have renewed their interest in hydrogen technology, due to its potential as a pollution-free fuel.
The continued success of other renewable technologies has shown that with some innovation and policy incentives, hydrogen could become a key player in helping build our global clean energy industries.
Indeed, within Northern Ireland, several projects investigating the use of hydrogen as a viable fuel source for transport have begun. The main project involves the Northern Ireland Transport company Translink who has purchased a fleet of hydrogen-powered double-decker buses and partnered with Energia, who owns a wind farm to supply the hydrogen to power the buses.
It appears that hydrogen vehicles are emerging, but perhaps the economies of scale will mean that public transport vehicles are more quickly adopted than private hydrogen vehicles in the shorter term.
Policy Landscape for Hydrogen in Scotland
Policy set out by The Scottish Government shows increasing support and opportunity for hydrogen in Scotland. While it is still early days for hydrogen in Scotland, research projects and guidance from the Government shows there is an interest in hydrogen as a piece of the energy puzzle as we work towards a decarbonised Scotland.
In their 2017 Energy Strategy the Scottish Government presented two scenarios to reach a net carbon neutral Scotland by 2045. One of these scenarios is a hydrogen future, utilizing current natural gas infrastructure and skills to deliver clean heat to homes and businesses in Scotland. There is a recognition that to achieve this vision that significant research, technical feasibility, and costings must be undertaken in Scotland.
Transport policy also offers opportunities for hydrogen deployment in Scotland. The Scottish Government aims to phase out the need for petrol and diesel vehicles by 2032, opening the market to ULEV. Additionally, low emission zones are being introduced in Scotland’s four biggest cities (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, and Dundee) which will limit access for the most polluting vehicles.
While this may make electric vehicles attractive to consumers, with one-third of car owners in the UK having no access to off-street parking, for many hydrogen vehicles may be the best option.
Most recently the Government, working alongside Scottish Enterprise and Highlands and Islands Enterprise, has announced the Hydrogen Assessment Project. This project, which will be undertaken by Arup, will assess hydrogen’s role in helping Scotland to achieve the 2045 target of net-zero emissions. The Scottish Government is developing its first hydrogen policy statement, and the work of the Hydrogen Assessment Project will inform it, as well as the Hydrogen Action Plan for Scotland (due later this year).
The Scottish Government’s most recent budget included opportunities for hydrogen in Scotland. Along with continued support for ULEV and low carbon infrastructure funds, the Government announced support for hydrogen and CCUS. In addition, the budget made direct mention of decarbonizing Scotland’s railways, including the development and testing of hydrogen-powered trains.
Is Hydrogen a viable fuel source for the Northern Ireland transport sector?
In July 2017, the UK government made the announcement that the sales of all petrol and diesel-powered vehicles would be phased out and banned by 2040, due to the negative impacts of emissions on both public health and the environment.
But what does this mean for consumers in Northern Ireland, located in regions where there is a huge reliance on private transport? Many developed countries are now working on creating alternative energy sources for transportation to replace fossil fuels.
At present, there are two promising technologies at the forefront of alternative energy; Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs). For some time, global car manufacturers have been electrifying selected vehicle models, and whilst the infrastructure for these has its drawbacks, it is more advanced than that of hydrogen, which powers FCVs.
However, with an increasing amount of research and projects, hydrogen is growing in popularity as a viable alternative fuel source to the ongoing fight towards decarbonization and emissions reduction.
Before looking at hydrogen, it is important to look back at the history of Northern Ireland’s Electric Vehicle charging infrastructure. An initial run of EV charging points was installed in 2012, with 40 installed in towns across the country. Another 140 were added a year later and a further investment of £600,000 was made in 2014 to install 100 EV charge points at hospitals, health trusts, libraries, and local council offices. Currently, there are around 350 public charge points available across NI.
One major issue related to EVs surrounds range anxiety. Despite improvements in battery technology, there is still a fear that on a long journey you may run out of power or have to stop for an extended period to recharge. For many, this is where hydrogen could come into play. According to researchers, the range of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles tends to be more economical than EVs.
For instance, Hyundai’s hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, the Nexo, comes with a range of 414 miles and takes five minutes to refill, compared to that of its electric counterparts which can often take up to an hour. However, whilst some car manufacturers, such as Hyundai and Toyota, remain confident that hydrogen technology now represents the future of transport, it is still considered too complicated for mass adoption.
A Land of Hydrogen Opportunities
Scotland is well known as being a world leader in renewable energy technologies and is fast becoming a hotspot for green hydrogen innovation.
The Orkney Islands are well known for turning abundant but constrained renewable energy into hydrogen whilst Aberdeen is building on its oil and gas expertise to transition to a hydrogen economy city.
As the Scottish Government consults on their new Sectoral Marine Plan for Offshore Wind Energy, the North Sea is already being investigated for producing large volumes of green hydrogen. The Dolphyn project is looking at deploying 4GW of floating wind early next decade for £12bn to deliver a viable solution for net-zero heating in UK homes.
The project aims to begin with a prototype unit for deployment in Scottish waters using a 2MW turbine from MHI Vestas and a WindFloat platform, already successfully tested off Portugal and designed by Principle Power.
The premise behind producing hydrogen offshore is that independence from the electricity grid can reduce costs further offshore. By producing the hydrogen offshore and piping it ashore, possible utilizing existing natural gas pipelines, and economies of scale, significant savings can be made. Electrical infrastructure such as cables can dominate costs in offshore production.
Offshore Wind Turbine, Liverpool Bay.